Marcello Cirillo, Lars Karlsson and Alessandro Saffiotti
Human-Aware Task Planning: an Application to Mobile Robots
ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology, Special Issue on Applications of Automated Planning, Volume 1, Issue 2, November 2010, pp. 15:1 - 15:25.
Abstract: Consider a house cleaning robot planning its activities for the day. Assume that the robot expects the human inhabitant to first dress, then have breakfast, and finally go out. Then, it should plan not to clean the bedroom while the human is dressing, and to clean the kitchen after the human has had breakfast. In general, robots operating in inhabited environments, like households and future factory floors, should plan their behavior taking into account the actions that will be performed by the humans sharing the same environment. This would improve human-robot cohabitation, for example, by avoiding undesired situations for the human. Unfortunately, current task planners only consider the robot's actions and unexpected external events in the planning process, and cannot accommodate expectations about the actions of the humans.
In this article, we present a human-aware planner able to address this problem. Our planner supports alternative hypotheses of the human plan, temporal duration for the actions of both the robot and the human, constraints on the interaction between robot and human, partial goal achievement and, most importantly, the possibility to use observations of human actions in the policy generated for the robot. Our planner has been tested both as a stand-alone component and within a full framework for human-robot interaction in a real environment.
Keywords: Human-Robot Interaction, Human-Aware Planning
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@ARTICLE{Cirillo:TIST:2010,
  AUTHOR = {Cirillo, Marcello and Karlsson, Lars and Saffiotti, Alessandro},
  TITLE = {Human-Aware Task Planning: an Application to Mobile Robots},
  JOURNAL = {ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology},
  YEAR = {2010},
  VOLUME = {Special Issue on Applications of Automated Planning},
  ISSUE = {2},
  PAGES = {15:1--15:26},
  DOI = {10.1007/s13218-011-0105-z}
}